This study compared cellular responses of maxillary sinuses after augmentation with anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix linked to the cell binding polypeptide P-15 (ABM/P-15) or PepGen P-15 and allogenic freeze-dried cranial bone slabs. Five adult Macaque fascicularis monkeys were used. On one side, the floor of the sinus was augmented with ABM/P-15, while the other side was augmented with 2 cranial bone slabs. Trephine bone biopsies were obtained 6, 12, and 24 weeks postgrafting. Animals were sacrificed 8 months after grafting. Soft X-ray microradiography was used to determine bone density. The volume fraction (Vv) of regenerated bone, the number of mesenchymal cells, and the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)- and alkaline phosphatase-positive cells at different augmentation sites were measured and compared. Basal bone heights were calculated at surgery and compared with total heights of the augmented sinus floors 8 months postgrafting. Bone formation, number of mesenchymal cells, PCNA index, and alkaline phosphatase index were significantly higher for the ABM/P-15 side than for the allogenic bone-augmented side. Both sides ended with a significant increase in bone height. The PCNA index decreased significantly over time (P < .05), while the alkaline phosphatase index increased significantly (P < .05) over time on both sides. Both graft materials have led to significant augmentation of the floor of the maxillary sinus with new bone; however, new bone formation and maturation were faster on the ABM/P-15 sites.