Engineering endostatin-producing cartilaginous constructs for cartilage repair using nonviral transfection of chondrocyte-seeded and mesenchymal-stem-cell-seeded collagen scaffolds

Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Oct;16(10):3011-21. doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0771.


Although there is widespread recognition of the importance of angiogenesis in tissue repair, there is little work on the inhibition of angiogenesis in the context of tissue engineering of naturally avascular tissues, like articular cartilage. The objective was to engineer a collagen-scaffold-based cartilaginous construct overexpressing a potent antiangiogenic factor, endostatin, using nonviral transfection. Endostatin-plasmid-supplemented collagen scaffolds were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes and cultured for 20–22 days. The effects of the following variables on endostatin expression and chondrogenesis were examined: collagen scaffold material, method of nonviral vector incorporation, plasmid load, culture medium, and oxygen tension. An increase and peak of endostatin protein was observed during the first week of culture, followed by a decrease to low levels, suggesting that overexpression of endostatin could be sustained for several days using the nonviral vector. The amount of endostatin produced was tunable with the external factors. Chondrogenesis was observed in the engineered constructs cultured in chondrogenic medium at the 3-week time point, demonstrating that endostatin did not inhibit the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells or the general viability of the cells. The ability to engineer endostatin-expressing cartilaginous constructs will be of value for future work exercising regulatory control of angiogenesis in cartilage repair.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cartilage / cytology*
  • Cartilage / metabolism
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chondrocytes / cytology*
  • Chondrocytes / metabolism
  • Collagen / chemistry*
  • Endostatins / metabolism*
  • Goats
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*


  • Endostatins
  • Collagen