We reviewed the results of all pediatric patients undergoing intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in a 2-year period at our institution. The outcome of patients suffering hypoxia or ischemic injuries (HII) is compared to those suffering non-hypoxic or non-ischemic injuries (NHII). Thirty-four patients had ICP monitors placed during the study period. Incomplete patient information led to the exclusion of 5 patients. An additional 5 patients were excluded because no measures to control ICP were taken after the monitor was placed. Twenty-four patients required treatment for raised ICP (hyperventilation, 24; mannitol, 19; barbiturate coma, 6). Admission Glasgow Coma Score in patients suffering HII (median score 5) and NHII (median score 6) were not significantly different (Mann-Whitney U Test). Only 2 of 8 patients with HII were near-drowning victims. The remaining 6 had HII from other causes (5 survivors of various forms of asphyxia and 1 of cardiac arrest). All 8 patients had poor outcomes (1 severely disabled; 7 died). The 16 patients with NHII had a variety of diagnoses (6 trauma, 5 encephalitis, 4 bacterial meningitis, 1 diabetic ketoacidosis). Among these, 6 had good outcomes and 10 poor outcomes (2 severely disabled, 2 vegetative, and 6 died). The difference in outcome between patients with NHII and HII is significant at P = 0.059 (Fischer Exact test). Patients with NHII may benefit from ICP monitoring. Patients with HII from near-drowning and other causes did not appear to benefit from ICP monitoring and interventions directed at controlling ICP.