Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infection of human B lymphocytes: a possible mechanism for JCV transmigration across the blood-brain barrier

J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15;202(2):184-91. doi: 10.1086/653823.

Abstract

It has been suggested that JC virus (JCV) might travel to the central nervous system in infected B cells. Moreover, recent data suggest the presence of JCV in bone marrow plasma cells. However, the evidence for infection and replication of JCV in B cells is unclear. To address this question, we infected Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells with JCV and found that the viral genome decreased >1000-fold from days 0 to 20 after infection, which concurred with the absence of viral early and late messenger RNA transcripts and proteins. However, immunofluorescent images of B cells infected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated JCV demonstrated that JCV enters the B cells, and DNase protection assay confirmed the presence of intact JCV virions inside the B cells. Moreover, JCV-infected B cells were able to transmit infection to naive glial cells. These data confirm that JCV nonproductively infects B cells and possibly uses them as a vehicle for transmigration across the blood-brain barrier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / virology*
  • Brain / immunology
  • Brain / virology
  • Cell Transformation, Viral
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • DNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Demyelinating Diseases / immunology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / pathology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / physiopathology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / virology
  • Deoxyribonucleases
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
  • Genome, Viral
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics
  • Humans
  • JC Virus / genetics
  • JC Virus / physiology*
  • Kidney / immunology
  • Kidney / virology
  • Lymphoid Tissue / immunology
  • Lymphoid Tissue / virology
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polyomavirus Infections / immunology*
  • Polyomavirus Infections / pathology
  • Polyomavirus Infections / physiopathology
  • Polyomavirus Infections / transmission
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic

Substances

  • DNA, Viral
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Viral
  • Deoxyribonucleases
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate