Modern war wounds are complex and primarily involve extremities. They require multiple operative interventions to achieve wound closure and begin rehabilitation. Current assessment of the suitability of surgical wound closure is based upon subjective methods coupled with a semiquantitative determination of the wound bacterial burden. Measurement of the systemic and local response to injury using inflammatory biomarkers may allow for accelerated wound closure and treatment of other combat-related morbidity. This article presents the introduction of personalized medicine into combat casualty care.