Review of available methods of simulation training to facilitate surgical education

Surg Endosc. 2011 Jan;25(1):28-35. doi: 10.1007/s00464-010-1123-x. Epub 2010 Jun 15.


The old paradigm of "see one, do one, teach one" has now changed to "see several, learn the skills and simulation, do one, teach one." Modern medicine over the past 30 years has undergone significant revolutions from earlier models made possible by significant technological advances. Scientific and technological progress has made these advances possible not only by increasing the complexity of procedures, but also by increasing the ability to have complex methods of training to perform these sophisticated procedures. Simulators in training labs have been much more embraced outside the operating room, with advanced cardiac life support using hands-on models (CPR "dummy") as well as a fusion with computer-based testing for examinations ranging from the United States medical licensure exam to the examinations administered by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Thus, the development of training methods that test both technical skills and clinical acumen may be essential to help achieve both safety and financial goals.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Accreditation
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Computer Terminals
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction / instrumentation
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction / methods*
  • Europe
  • Feedback, Sensory
  • General Surgery / education*
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy / education*
  • Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Learning Curve
  • United States
  • User-Computer Interface