The mortality status of all individuals in Norway with the onset of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus from 1973 through 1982 and age at onset below 15 years was determined as of 1 July 1988. Of the 1908 cases included in the follow-up, 20 had died (15 males and 5 females) and 10 had emigrated. A two-fold increased risk for early mortality was exhibited among this cohort. Life-table analyses did not find sex or age at onset of Type 1 diabetes to be statistically significant predictors of survival when controlling for diabetes duration. A review of death certificates revealed that accidents and suicides accounted for 40% of the deaths in the total cohort and that this cause of death occurred only among male subjects. Acute diabetes related complications were the underlying causes of death for 35% of the subjects. Diabetic renal disease and death by cardiovascular disease were not documented in this young cohort with a maximum age of 30 years and maximum diabetes duration of 15.5 years. This is the first mortality report of a population-based registered cohort of Type 1 diabetic patients for Norway. While still being at increased risk for premature death, this cohort appears to be at decreased risk of early death when compared to a cohort of young diabetic patients from Oslo, Norway diagnosed in 1925-1955, suggesting improvements in the survival of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in Norway.