Measuring HIV fusion mediated by envelopes from primary viral isolates

Methods. 2011 Jan;53(1):34-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2010.05.010. Epub 2010 Jun 8.


Over the course of infection, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continuously adapts in part to evade the host's neutralizing antibody response. Antibodies often target the HIV envelope proteins that mediate HIV fusion to its cellular targets. HIV virions pseudotyped with primary envelopes have often been used to explore the fusogenic properties of these envelopes. Unfortunately, these pseudotyped virions fuse with greatly reduced efficiency to primary cells. Here, we describe a relatively simple strategy to clone primary envelopes into a provirus and increase the sensitivity of the virion-based fusion assay.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Biological Assay
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA, Viral / physiology
  • Dendritic Cells / virology
  • Flow Cytometry
  • HIV-1 / genetics
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphocytes / virology
  • Proviruses / genetics
  • Proviruses / physiology
  • Virion / genetics
  • Virion / physiology
  • Virus Attachment*
  • Virus Internalization*
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / metabolism*


  • DNA, Viral
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus