The effects of neuronal density on morphological and functional attributes of the evolving networks were studied in cultured dissociated hippocampal neurons. Plating at different densities affected connectivity among the neurons, such that sparse networks exhibited stronger synaptic connections between pairs of recorded neurons. This was associated with different patterns of spontaneous network activity with enhanced burst size but reduced burst frequency in the sparse cultures. Neuronal density also affected the morphology of the dendrites and spines of these neurons, such that sparse neurons had a simpler dendritic tree and fewer dendritic spines. Additionally, analysis of neurons transfected with PSD95 revealed that in sparse cultures the synapses are formed on the dendritic shaft, whereas in dense cultures the synapses are formed primarily on spine heads. These experiments provide important clues on the role of neuronal density in population activity and should yield new insights into the rules governing neuronal network connectivity.