The aim of our study was to determine the radiographic prevalence of hip and knee osteoarthritis and compare our results with prevalence data reported by other studies, as no similar study had been performed in Hungary previously. Our aim was also to investigate the usefulness of the different radiological scoring methods for the definition of osteoarthritis. Patients who earlier reported complaints and gave written consent were asked to participate in a clinical follow-up. In the 682 participants Harris hip score, visual analogue pain scale values for both joints, Knee Society score and knee functional score were calculated. Weight-bearing radiographs were taken of both joints. Kellgren-Lawrence radiological evaluation was performed and osteoarthritis prevalence was defined. Hip osteoarthritis was found in 109 cases (16.49%), and knee osteoarthritis was found in 111 cases (16.54%). Harris hip score, Knee Society score, functional score and visual analogue scale values were significantly worse in people with radiographically proven osteoarthritis compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher osteoarthritis prevalence of both joints was found in those with increased body mass index values. Age also plays a significant role in the development of both hip and knee osteoarthritis. No significant difference was observed between male and female participants regarding osteoarthritis prevalence. The Kellgren-Lawrence score with a cut-off value of 2 or more is a useful evaluation method for the detection of osteoarthritis prevalence in epidemiological studies; according to our observations, in clinical practice a cut-off value of three or more is more relevant.