Inflammation is postulated to play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) is responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in response to inflammation. In a pooled analysis of two population-based studies, the Hawaii Ovarian Cancer Case-Control Study and the New England Case-Control Study, including 1,025 women with invasive ovarian carcinoma and 1,687 cancer-free controls, the association of ovarian cancer risk with the PTGS2 rs5275 polymorphism and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were examined. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. In the pooled analysis, the CC genotype was associated with a reduced risk of nonserous ovarian carcinoma (OR = 0.66; CI: 0.44-0.98). In addition, the lowest risk was observed among carriers of the CC genotype who were users of only nonaspirin NSAIDs (OR = 0.43; CI:0.20-0.93) in all women combined. The association of PTGS2 rs5275 with nonserous ovarian carcinoma and possible effect modification by NSAID use needs further validation, preferably in prospective studies.