The field of regenerative medicine holds tremendous promise for the treatment of chronic diseases. While the adult mammalian heart has limited regenerative capacity, previous studies have focused on cellular therapeutic strategies in an attempt to modulate cardiac regeneration. An alternative strategy relies on the modulation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells or signaling pathways to promote cardiac regeneration. Several organisms, including the newt, have an incomparable capacity for the regeneration of differentiated tissues. An enhanced understanding of the signals, pathways, and factors that mediate the regenerative response in these organisms may be useful in modulating the regenerative response of mammalian organs including the injured adult heart.