The aim of the study was to compare the effects of vildagliptin added to pioglitazone or glimepiride on metabolic and insulin resistance related-indices in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). 168 patients with T2DM were randomized to take either pioglitazone 30 mg once a day plus vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day or glimepiride 2 mg 3 times a day plus vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day. We evaluated body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index (HOMA-beta), fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), proinsulin/fasting plasma insulin ratio (Pr/FPI ratio), adiponectin (ADN), resistin (R), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) at their baseline values, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment. We observed a similar improvement of HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and Hs-CRP compared to baseline in the 2 groups. Fasting plasma insulin, FPPr, Pr/FPI ratio, R, and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased and ADN was significantly increased with pioglitazone plus vildagliptin, but not with glimepiride plus vildagliptin. HOMA-IR, and HOMA-beta values obtained with pioglitazone plus vildagliptin were significantly better than the values obtained with glimepiride plus vildagliptin. Pioglitazone plus vildagliptin were found to be more effective in preserving beta-cell function, and in reducing insulin resistance, and inflammatory state parameters.
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