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Review
, 29 (3), 153-75

The Management of Acute Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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Review

The Management of Acute Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Gan Hui-li. Cardiovasc Ther.

Abstract

Acute pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may complicate the course of many complex disorders, is always underdiagnosed and its treatment frequently begins only after serious complications have developed. Acute PAH is distinctive because they differ in their clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and response to treatment from chronic PAH. The acute PAH may take either the form of acute onset of chronic PAH or acute PAH or surgery-related PAH. Significant pathophysiologic differences existed between acute and chronic PAH. Therapy of acute PAH should generally be aimed at acutely relieving right ventricular (RV) pressure overload and preventing RV dysfunction. There are three classes of drugs targeting the correction of abnormalities in endothelial dysfunction, which have been approved recently for the treatment of PAH: (1) prostanoids; (2) endothelin receptor antagonists; and (3) phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The efficacy and safety of these compounds have been confirmed in uncontrolled studies in patients with PAH. Intravenous epoprostenol is suggested to serve as the first-line treatment for the most severe patients. In the other situations, the first-line therapy may include bosentan, sildenafil, or a prostacyclin analogue. Recent advances in the management of PAH have markedly improved prognosis.

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