Patients with a first symptomatic unprovoked deep vein thrombosis are at higher risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism than patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism

J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Sep;8(9):1926-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.03958.x.


Background: Previous studies are mixed as to whether patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE) have a higher rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence after anticoagulation is discontinued than patients with unprovoked deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Objectives: To determine whether patients with unprovoked PE have a higher rate of VTE recurrence than patients with unprovoked DVT in a prospective multicenter cohort study.

Patients/methods: Six hundred and forty-six patients with a first episode of symptomatic unprovoked VTE were treated with heparin and subsequent oral anticoagulation for 5-7 months, and were followed every 6 months for recurrent VTE after their anticoagulant therapy was discontinued.

Results: Of 646 patients, 194 had isolated PE, 339 had isolated DVT, and 113 had both DVT and PE. After a mean of 18 months of follow-up, there were 91 recurrent VTE events (9.5% annualized risk of recurrent VTE in the total population). The crude recurrent VTE rate for the isolated PE, isolated DVT and DVT and PE groups were 7.7%, 16.5% and 17.7%, respectively. The relative risk of recurrent VTE for isolated DVT vs. isolated PE was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.7).

Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that patients with a first episode of unprovoked isolated DVT are 2.1 times more likely to have a recurrent VTE episode than patients with a first episode of unprovoked isolated PE. These findings need to be considered when determining the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy for patients with unprovoked VTE.

Trial registration: NCT00261014.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Embolism / complications
  • Pulmonary Embolism / diagnosis*
  • Recurrence
  • Risk
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Venous Thromboembolism / complications
  • Venous Thromboembolism / diagnosis*
  • Venous Thrombosis / complications*
  • Venous Thrombosis / therapy*


  • Anticoagulants

Associated data