Predictors and outcome of acute kidney injury in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

Cancer. 2010 Sep 1;116(17):4063-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25306.


Background: : Acute kidney injury (AKIis a common complication in the treatment of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS), but, to the authors' knowledge, its clinical relevance has not been detailed to date. The objective of the current study was to identify the incidence, predictors, and outcome for AKI in patients with AML and HR-MDS.

Methods: : Data were analyzed from 537 patients with AML or HR-MDS undergoing induction chemotherapy from 1999 to 2007. Predictors for AKI were identified by logistic regression. Eight-week mortality of patients was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method stratified by the RIFLE criteria, a novel multilevel classification system for AKI based on the percent rise in serum creatinine from baseline (Risk, >50%; Injury, >100%; and Failure, >200% or requiring dialysis).

Results: : A total of 187 patients (36%) developed AKI. Significant independent risk factors for AKI included the following: age >/=55 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.8), mechanical ventilation (OR, 16), use of vancomycin (OR, 2.3), diuretics (OR, 3.0), amphotericin B lipid formulation (OR, 2.7), vasopressors (OR, 4.9), leukopenia (OR, 1.9), hypoalbuminemia (OR, 1.4), and use of non-fludarabine-based chemotherapy (OR, 2.7). The 8-week mortality rates were 3.8%, 13.6%, 19.6%, and 61.7% for the non-RIFLE, Risk, Injury, and Failure categories, respectively. Patients requiring dialysis (8%) had a median survival of 33 days. Survival of patients who achieved complete remission was favorable, regardless of degree of AKI.

Conclusions: : The RIFLE classification for AKI appears to have prognostic utility in predicting mortality in patients with AML or HR-MDS. Relatively mild elevations in creatinine are associated with higher mortality. Strategies to avoid nephrotoxic drugs or fluid overload may be of benefit. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / mortality
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Function Tests / methods
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications*
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes / mortality
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors