SMAD4--molecular gladiator of the TGF-beta signaling is trampled upon by mutational insufficiency in colorectal carcinoma of Kashmiri population: an analysis with relation to KRAS proto-oncogene

BMC Cancer. 2010 Jun 17:10:300. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-300.


Background: The development and progression of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied and the genes responsible have been well characterized. However the correlation between the SMAD4 gene mutations with KRAS mutant status has not been explored by many studies so far. Here, in this study we aimed to investigate the role of SMAD4 gene aberrations in the pathogenesis of CRC in Kashmir valley and to correlate it with various clinicopathological variables and KRAS mutant genotype.

Methods: We examined the paired tumor and normal tissue specimens of 86 CRC patients for the occurrence of aberrations in MCR region of SMAD4 and exon 1 of KRAS by PCR-SSCP and/or PCR-Direct sequencing.

Results: The overall mutation rate of mutation cluster region (MCR) region of SMAD4 gene among 86 patients was 18.6% (16 of 86). 68.75% (11/16) of the SMAD4 gene mutants were found to have mutations in KRAS gene as well. The association between the KRAS mutant genotype with SMAD4 mutants was found to be significant (P = or < 0.05). Further more, we found a significant association of tumor location, tumor grade, node status, occupational exposure to pesticides and bleeding PR/Constipation with the mutation status of the SMAD4 gene (P = or < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that SMAD4 gene aberrations are the common event in CRC development but play a differential role in the progression of CRC in higher tumor grade (C+D) and its association with the KRAS mutant status suggest that these two molecules together are responsible for the progression of the tumor to higher/advanced stage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / ethnology
  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics*
  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Base Sequence
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ethnology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Exons
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Phenotype
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prognosis
  • Proto-Oncogene Mas
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Smad4 Protein / genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • ras Proteins / genetics*


  • KRAS protein, human
  • MAS1 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Mas
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • SMAD4 protein, human
  • Smad4 Protein
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • ras Proteins