Importance of tumor load in the sentinel node in melanoma: clinical dilemmas

Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug;7(8):446-54. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2010.100. Epub 2010 Jun 22.

Abstract

There are two hypotheses to explain melanoma dissemination: first, simultaneous lymphatic and hematogeneous spread, with regional lymph nodes as indicators of metastatic disease; and second, orderly progression, with regional lymph nodes as governors of metastatic disease. The sentinel node (SN) has been defined as the first draining lymph node from a tumor and is harvested with the use of the triple technique and is processed by an extensive pathology protocol. The SN status is a strong prognostic factor for survival (83-94% for SN negative, 56-75% SN-positive patients). False-negative rates are considerable (9-21%). Preliminary results of the MSLT-1 trial did not demonstrate a survival benefit for the SN procedure, although a subgroup analysis indicates a possible benefit. A mathematical model has demonstrated 24% prognostic false positivity. SN tumor burden represents a heterogeneous patient population and is classified most frequently with the Starz, Dewar or Rotterdam Criteria. A completion lymph-node dissection might not be indicated in all SN-positive patients. Patients classified with metastases <0.1 mm by the Rotterdam Criteria have excellent survival rates. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is emerging as a staging tool for high-risk patients, but more research is necessary before this can change clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Melanoma / mortality
  • Melanoma / pathology*
  • Melanoma / surgery
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Netherlands
  • Prognosis
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy*
  • Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • Tumor Burden*
  • Ultrasonography