Background: Peritoneal seeding after abdominal surgery is a well known route of metastasis in intra-abdominal solid tumours. Direct mechanical contamination, local peritoneal trauma and subsequent inflammation, postoperative immunosuppression, and laparoscopic surgery are the proposed predisposing factors for this type of metastasis. These factors probably result in enhanced adhesion or growth of tumour cells. However, this route of metastasis has not yet been reported for lymphomas. Here, we report the first case of peritoneal seeding of lymphoma cells after an abdominal surgery.
Case description: A 47-year-old man with mantle cell lymphoma had ascites because of infiltration of the liver. He underwent debulking splenectomy. The postoperative ascites cytology and control abdominal computed tomography imaging both confirmed peritoneal involvement and lymphoma progression. Demonstration of negative peritoneal involvement before surgery and close timing of peritoneal involvement after splenectomy suggested to us that the debulking surgery was the main cause of peritoneal seeding of lymphoma cells in our case.
Conclusions: Factors similar to those in solid tumour seeding may also be valid for lymphomas. Peritoneal seeding and consequent disease progression may be a potential complication of abdominal surgery in lymphoma with extensive intra-abdominal involvement.
Keywords: Lymphoma; laparoscopy; laparotomy; progression; seeding.