Introduction: Reported associations between condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent.
Methods: We tested 463 men, ages 18-40 years, in 2 cities in the United States for 37 HPV types in samples from 5 anogenital sites. Men answered questionnaires regarding number of partners and frequency of condom use during vaginal sex in the past 3 months (5 categories, from "always" to "never"). Among 393 men who reported > or =1 female partner in the past 3 months, the proportions of men with HPV detected overall and at each anatomic site by frequency of condom use were calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between frequency of condom use and HPV detection. Effect modification by number of recent partners (1 vs >1) was evaluated.
Results: The proportion of men positive for HPV ranged from 37.9% among men who reported they "always" used condoms to 53.9% among those who reported they "never" used condoms (P for trend = .008). Always using condoms (vs using them less frequently) was associated with lower odds of HPV detection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.50 [95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.83]). This association was stronger among men with >1 partner than among men with only 1 partner (P for interaction = .05).
Conclusions: Consistent condom use was strongly associated with lower HPV prevalence in men.