Background: The epidemiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been mainly investigated in patients with end-stage renal disease, with limited data on less advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages.
Methods: A total of 3,267 adult participants (50% non-Hispanic blacks, 46% women) with CKD from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort were included in this study. None of the study participants had been on dialysis. Those with self-identified race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic black or white (n = 323) or those without electrocardiographic data (n = 22) were excluded. Atrial fibrillation was ascertained by a 12-lead electrocardiogram and self-report. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific prevalence rates of AF were estimated and compared between subgroups. Cross-sectional associations and correlates with prevalent AF were examined using unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis.
Results: The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 43.6 (+/-13.0) mL/(min 1.73 m(2)). Atrial fibrillation was present in 18% of the study population and in >25% of those > or =70 years old. In multivariable-adjusted models, 1-SD increase in age (11 years) (odds ratio 1.27, CI 95% 1.13-1.43, P < .0001), male [corrected] sex (0.80, 0.65-0.98, P = .0303), smoking (former vs never) (1.34, 1.08-1.66, P = .0081), history of heart failure (3.28, 2.47-4.36, P < .001), and history of cardiovascular disease (1.94, 1.56-2.43, P < .0001) were significantly associated with AF. Race/ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, education, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and alcohol intake were not significantly associated with AF. An estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/(min 1.73 m(2)) was associated with AF in an unadjusted model (1.35, 1.13-1.62, P = .0010), but not after multivariable adjustment (1.12, 0.92-1.35, P = .2710).
Conclusions: Nearly 1 in 5 participants in Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, a national study of CKD, had evidence of AF at study entry, a prevalence similar to that reported among patients with end-stage renal disease and 2 to 3 times of that reported in the general population. Risk factors for AF in this CKD population do not mirror those reported in the general population.
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