Role of hospital surfaces in the transmission of emerging health care-associated pathogens: norovirus, Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter species

Am J Infect Control. 2010 Jun;38(5 Suppl 1):S25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2010.04.196.


Health care-associated infections (HAI) remain a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Although the main source of nosocomial pathogens is likely the patient's endogenous flora, an estimated 20% to 40% of HAI have been attributed to cross infection via the hands of health care personnel, who have become contaminated from direct contact with the patient or indirectly by touching contaminated environmental surfaces. Multiple studies strongly suggest that environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. More recently, evidence suggests that environmental contamination also plays a role in the nosocomial transmission of norovirus, Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter spp. All 3 pathogens survive for prolonged periods of time in the environment, and infections have been associated with frequent surface contamination in hospital rooms and health care worker hands. In some cases, the extent of patient-to-patient transmission has been found to be directly proportional to the level of environmental contamination. Improved cleaning/disinfection of environmental surfaces and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce the spread of all of these pathogens. Importantly, norovirus and C difficile are relatively resistant to the most common surface disinfectants and waterless alcohol-based antiseptics. Current hand hygiene guidelines and recommendations for surface cleaning/disinfection should be followed in managing outbreaks because of these emerging pathogens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter / isolation & purification
  • Acinetobacter Infections / epidemiology
  • Acinetobacter Infections / transmission*
  • Caliciviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Caliciviridae Infections / transmission*
  • Clostridioides difficile / isolation & purification
  • Clostridium Infections / epidemiology
  • Clostridium Infections / transmission*
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology
  • Cross Infection / transmission*
  • Disinfection / methods
  • Enterococcus / drug effects
  • Enterococcus / isolation & purification
  • Environmental Microbiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / epidemiology
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / transmission
  • Hospitals
  • Housekeeping, Hospital / methods
  • Humans
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification
  • Microbial Viability
  • Norovirus / isolation & purification
  • Vancomycin Resistance