Intraocular pressure and related systemic and ocular biometric factors in a population-based study in Japan: the Kumejima study

Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug;150(2):279-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.03.009. Epub 2010 Jun 8.


Purpose: To examine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its related systemic and ocular biometric factors in a population-based study in a southwestern island of Japan.

Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study.

Methods: All residents of Kumejima Island, Japan, located in southwestern Japan (eastern longitude, 126 degrees 48 minutes and northern latitude 26 degrees 20 minutes), 40 years of age and older were asked to undergo a comprehensive questionnaire and ocular examination, including measurement of IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry.

Results: Of the 4632 eligible residents, 3762 (81.2%) underwent the examination. In 2838 non-glaucomatous subjects from whom reliable measurements of IOP were obtained, the mean IOPs +/- standard deviation in all, men, and women were 15.1 +/- 3.1 mm Hg (n = 2838), 15.2 +/- 3.1 mm Hg (n = 1450), and 15.1 +/- 3.0 mm Hg (n = 1388), respectively, with no significant intersex difference (P = .63). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that higher IOP was significantly correlated with younger age (P < .001), higher body mass index (P < .001), higher systolic blood pressure (P < .001), history of diabetes mellitus (P = .001), thicker central corneal thickness (P < .001), steeper corneal curvature (P < .001), and longer axial length (P < .018), but not with anterior chamber depth and the Shaffer angle width grade.

Conclusions: Younger age, higher body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure, diabetes, thicker central corneal thickness, and steeper corneal curvature were significantly correlated with higher IOP. The present results confirm that IOP is associated with systemic and ocular biometric factors and may define specific subgroups most likely to have an elevated IOP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biometry
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Glaucoma / epidemiology
  • Gonioscopy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology*
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tonometry, Ocular