It is reported that defects exist in the small intestinal epithelial barrier of inflammatory bowel disease, which might be associated with increased intestinal permeability at a very early stage. Our study aims to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum on the decrease of epithelial permeability and the further protective effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier using the IL-10-deficient mouse model. Our study showed that tight junction associated proteins were increased after the pre-treatment of L. plantarum by fluorescence staining, western blot, real-time PCR and transmission electron microscope. Oral gavage of milk containing L. plantarum was effective in decreasing small intestinal permeability using methods of Ussing chamber assay and sugar probe. Assay of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, MPO, and colonic histology by ELISA showed protective effects of L. plantarum on the intestinal epithelial barrier. Therefore, L. plantarum may prevent the development of colitis in IL-10-deficient mice by blocking changes in the expression of TJ proteins, TJ structure and intestinal permeability.