Summary Isolates of Fusarium subglutinans mating population E are usually found on maize. This fungus forms part of the so-called Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Previously, F. subglutinans has been associated with two additional mating populations (B and H) and a variety of plant hosts. This was mainly due to a lack of diagnostic morphological characters, but the use of DNA sequence information showed that the strains making up mating populations B, E and H, as well as those associated with the different plant hosts, represent separate species. Recently, another putative mating population has been reported on the wild teosinte relatives of maize. Based on sexual compatibility studies, these isolates were apparently closely related to the pitch canker fungus, F. subglutinans f. sp. pini (= F. circinatum;G. fujikuroi mating population H). The aim of the current study was to determine whether the population of F. subglutinans from teosinte constitutes a new or an existing lineage within the G. fujikuroi complex. For this purpose, portions of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA, calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes from the fungi were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences from public domain databases indicated that the F. subglutinans isolates from teosinte are most closely related to strains of G. fujikuroi mating population E. These results were confirmed using sexual compatibility studies. The putative mating population from the wild relatives of maize therefore forms part of the existing E-mating population and does not constitute a new lineage in the G. fujikuroi species complex.