Purpose: To establish the feasibility of performing combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of abdominal masses by using previously acquired PET/CT images registered with intraprocedural CT images.
Materials and methods: In this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved study, 14 patients underwent clinically indicated percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses (mean size, 3.3 cm; range, 1.2-5.0 cm) in the liver (n = 6), presacral soft tissue (n = 3), retroperitoneal lymph nodes (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), and pancreas (n = 1). PET/CT images obtained no more than 62 days (mean, 18.3 days) before the biopsy procedure were registered with intraprocedural CT images by using image registration software. The registered images were used to plan the procedure and help target the masses.
Results: The image registrations were technically successful in all but one patient, who had severe scoliosis. The remaining 13 biopsy procedures yielded diagnostic results, which were positive for malignancy in 10 cases and negative in three cases.
Conclusion: PET/CT-guided abdominal biopsy with use of prior PET/CT images registered with intraprocedural CT scans is feasible and may be helpful when fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid masses that are not seen sufficiently with nonenhanced CT are sampled at biopsy.