Background: Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (QHPV) is > 95% effective in preventing infection with vaccine-type human papillomavirus. The safety and immunogenicity of QHPV are unknown in HIV-infected children.
Methods: HIV-infected children (N = 126)-age > 7 to < 12 years, with a CD4% ≥ 15-and on stable antiretroviral therapy if CD4% was < 25-were blindly assigned to receive a dose of QHPV or placebo (3:1 ratio) at 0, 8, and 24 weeks. Adverse events were evaluated after each dose. Serum antibody against QHPV antigens was measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay 1 month after the third QHPV dose.
Results: The safety profile of QHPV was similar in the 2 study arms and to that previously reported for QHPV recipients. QHPV did not alter the CD4% or plasma HIV RNA. Seroconversion to all 4 antigens occurred in > 96% of QHPV recipients and in no placebo recipients. Geometric mean titer was > 27 to 262 times greater than the seropositivity cutoff value, depending on the antigen, but was 30%-50% lower against types 6 and 18 than those of age-similar historical controls.
Conclusions: QHPV was safe and immunogenic in this cohort of HIV-infected children. Efficacy trials are warranted.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339040.