Novel polyurethanes with interconnected porous structure induce in vivo tissue remodeling and accompanied vascularization

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Oct;95(1):198-208. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32817.


Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have furnished a vast range of modalities to treat either damaged tissue or loss of soft tissue or its function. In most approaches, a temporary porous scaffold is required to support tissue regeneration. The scaffold should be designed such that the turnover synchronizes with tissue remodeling and regeneration at the implant site. Segmented polyester urethanes (PUs) used in this study were based on epsilon-caprolactone (CL) and co-monomers D,L-lactide (D,L-L) and gamma-butyrolactone (BL), and 1,4-butanediisocyanate (BDI). In vitro, the PUs were nontoxic and haemocompatible. To test in vivo biocompatibility, the PUs were further processed into porous structures and subcutaneously implanted in rats for a period up to 21 days. Tissue remodeling and scaffold turnover was associated with a mild tissue response. The tissue response was characterized by extensive vascularization through the interconnected pores, with low numbers of macrophages on the edges and stroma formation inside the pores of the implants. The tissue ingrowth appeared to be related to the extent of microphase separation of the PUs and foam morphology. By day 21, all of the PU implants were highly vascularized, confirming the pores were interconnected. Degradation of P(CL/D,L-L)-PU was observed at this time, whereas the other two PU types remained intact. The robust method reported here of manufacturing and processing, good mechanical properties, and in vivo tissue response of the porous P(CL/D,L-L)-PU and PBCL-PU makes them excellent candidates as biomaterials with an application for soft tissue remodeling, for example, for cardiovascular regeneration.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Death / drug effects
  • Crystallization
  • Endotoxins / metabolism
  • Male
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects*
  • Polyurethanes / chemical synthesis
  • Polyurethanes / chemistry*
  • Polyurethanes / pharmacology*
  • Porosity / drug effects
  • Prosthesis Implantation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sus scrofa
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*


  • Endotoxins
  • Polyurethanes