Surgical results in the management of advanced primary congenital glaucoma in a rural pediatric population

Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb;118(2):231-5.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.02.027. Epub 2010 Jun 25.


Objective: To present the anatomic and functional results of surgical treatment for advanced primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in a rural setting.

Design: Retrospective, observational case series.

Participants: Forty eyes of 22 consecutive patients diagnosed with PCG and who underwent surgical treatment.

Methods: All eyes underwent surgical treatment for PCG. Type of surgery and postoperative complications were noted. We examined anatomic and functional indices before and after the operation.

Main outcome measures: Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive spherical error, cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and horizontal corneal diameter (HCD).

Results: Average age at the time of surgery was 3.3 years (range, 0.4-10) and the mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1-11). 15% showed marked lens dislocation owing to the severe buphthalmos at presentation. Preoperative IOP was 54 ± 2 mmHg, HCD was 15.1 ± 0.3 mm, and CDR (when visible) was 0.8 ± 0.02. Surgical intervention included 31 trabeculotomies, 6 Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implants, 1 goniotomy, and 2 eviscerations. Serious complications were noted in 4 eyes. Final postoperative IOP was 23 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.0001). Patients were significantly more likely to have ambulatory VA (following objects or better) after operation (18% vs 64%; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our surgical outcomes in children with advanced PCG demonstrated moderate overall improvement in IOP and modest improvement of VA. Deep deprivation amblyopia, severe disease manifestation at presentation, opaque corneas, and frequent lens dislocation limited the possible success. These data further signify the need for effective, timely screening of children and prompt recognition by health care workers to reduce the rate of avoidable blindness in developing countries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glaucoma Drainage Implants*
  • Humans
  • Hydrophthalmos / epidemiology
  • Hydrophthalmos / physiopathology
  • Hydrophthalmos / surgery*
  • Infant
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Refractive Errors / physiopathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rural Population*
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • Trabeculectomy*
  • Visual Acuity / physiology