Simultaneous intracellular chloride and pH measurements using a GFP-based sensor

Nat Methods. 2010 Jul;7(7):516-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1471. Epub 2010 Jun 27.


Chloride and protons perform important closely related roles in many cellular responses. Here we developed a ratiometric biosensor, ClopHensor, based on a highly chloride-sensitive Aequorea victoria GFP variant that is suited for the combined real-time optical detection of pH changes and chloride fluxes in live cells. We detected high chloride concentration in large dense-core exocytosis granules by targeting ClopHensor to these intracellular compartments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorides / chemistry*
  • Chlorides / metabolism
  • Cytoplasmic Granules / chemistry
  • Exocytosis
  • Genetic Variation
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / chemistry*
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence


  • Chlorides
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins