Cancer immunotherapy is finally entering a new era with manipulation of cosignaling pathways as a therapeutic approach, for which the principle was proved nearly two decades ago. In addition to CTLA-4, CD137 and B7-H1/PD-1 pathways are two new targets in the stage. CD137 pathway is costimulatory and its agonistic antibody delivers potent signal to drive T cell growth and activation. On the other hand, blockade of B7-H1/PD-1 pathway with antagonistic antibody has shown to protect ongoing T cell responses from impairment by immune evasion mechanism in cancer microenvironment. With these tools in hand, a mechanism-based design of combined immunotherapy with high efficacy is becoming a reality.