Dendro[C(60)]fullerene DF-1 provides radioprotection to radiosensitive mammalian cells

Radiat Environ Biophys. 2010 Aug;49(3):437-45. doi: 10.1007/s00411-010-0310-4. Epub 2010 Jun 27.


In this study, the ability of the C(60) fullerene derivative DF-1 to protect radiosensitive cells from the effects of high doses of gamma irradiation was examined. Earlier reports of DF-1's lack of toxicity in these cells were confirmed, and DF-1 was also observed to protect both human lymphocytes and rat intestinal crypt cells against radiation-induced cell death. We determined that DF-1 protected both cell types against radiation-induced DNA damage, as measured by inhibition of micronucleus formation. DF-1 also reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species in the crypt cells, a unique capability of fullerenes because of their enhanced reactivity toward electron-rich species. The ability of DF-1 to protect against the cytotoxic effects of radiation was comparable to that of amifostine, another ROS-scavenging radioprotector. Interestingly, localization of fluorescently labeled DF-1 in fibroblast was observed throughout the cell. Taken together, these results suggest that DF-1 provides powerful protection against several deleterious cellular consequences of irradiation in mammalian systems including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biological Transport
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / radiation effects
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • DNA Damage
  • Dendrimers / chemistry*
  • Dendrimers / metabolism
  • Dendrimers / pharmacology*
  • Fullerenes / chemistry*
  • Fullerenes / metabolism
  • Fullerenes / pharmacology*
  • Gamma Rays
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / cytology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestinal Mucosa / radiation effects
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Lymphocytes / radiation effects
  • Radiation Tolerance*
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / chemistry*
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / metabolism
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Rats


  • Antioxidants
  • Dendrimers
  • Fullerenes
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • fullerene C60