Behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC; more commonly known as bedtime problems and night wakings) commonly occurs in young children (<or=5 years). If left untreated, bedtime problems and night wakings can result in impairments in behavior, emotion regulation, and academic performance. Yet, treatments for bedtime problems and night wakings have been found to be efficacious and durable. This article begins with a review of the diagnostic criteria and clinical presentation of BIC. This is followed by a brief review of how operant theory is applied to behavioral interventions for BIC and a detailed discussion of how to apply these treatments for bedtime problems and night wakings in young children.