Background: The plant Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is used as an osteoprotective agent in Ayurveda, the Indian system of alternative medicine. The present study was done to validate the anti-osteoporotic role of the petroleum ether extract of CQ on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.
Methods: Female wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each; (1) The Normal control (NC) group (n=6) received no surgery and no treatment, (2). The Sham control (SHAM) group (n=6) received sham surgery but no treatment, (3) the Ovariectomized (OVX) group (n=6) received an ovariectomy and normal saline treatment for 90 days, (4) the Ovariectomized+raloxifene (OVX+RAL) group (n=6) received an ovariectomy and treatment with raloxifene, a known anti-osteoporotic agent for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day and (5) the Ovariectomy+Cissus quadrangularis (OVX+CQ) group (n=6) received an ovariectomy, and treatmentwith the petroleum ether extract of CQ 500 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. At the end of the treatment period, rats in all groups were sacrificed and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis, and the left femur for histomorphometrical analysis.
Results: CQ significantly increased the force required to break the femur (p<0.001) and significantly increased the thickness of both cortical (p<0.001) and trabecular bone (p<0.001). This action of CQ was comparable to the action of raloxifene.
Conclusions: The petroleum ether extract of CQ stem seems to possess anti-osteoporotic activity in rats.