Effect of working posture on occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders among the sand core making workers of West Bengal

Cent Eur J Public Health. 2010 Mar;18(1):38-42.


The sand core making process is performed manually in West Bengal involving a large number of workers of lowest economic strata. The core making workers most often work for a prolonged period of time and they are forced to handle various amounts of heavy load during the entire period of work. In this study an attempt was made to identify the work related musculoskeletal disorders among the sand core-making workers. Fifty male workers engaged in carbon dioxide and chemical core making work at an unorganized sector at Baruipur, Calcutta were randomly selected for this study. A detailed modified Nordic questionnaire study on discomfort feeling was performed among the core making workers. REBA method was applied to analyze the working posture. Finally, discomfort level and risk level of the individual working postures were calculated by the use of risk level and discomfort level scale. From the questionnaire study it was revealed that most of the core making workers grind often in awkward postures. The workers were affected by musculoskeletal disorders like pain at low back (100%), hand (40%), shoulder (30%), wrist (20%) and neck (20%). It has been also found that there is a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between discomfort level and risk level of the individual working postures of the workers. It was concluded from the study that health of the core-making workers was highly affected by different awkward postures and that they suffer from posture-related musculoskeletal disorders primarily affecting the low back region.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Extraction and Processing Industry
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Man-Machine Systems*
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / etiology*
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology*
  • Posture*
  • Risk
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Young Adult


  • Silicon Dioxide