Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a global public health burden. Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. In this review, the following key issues of CKD in Taiwan are addressed: epidemiological data, underlying diseases patterns, risk factors, public health concerns and a preventive project. Prevalence of CKD are reported to be 6.9% for CKD stage 3-5, 9.83% for clinically recognized CKD and 11.9% for CKD stage 1-5. However, overall awareness of CKD is low, 9.7% for CKD stage 1-3 and 3.5% for stage 1-5. Diabetes mellitus (43.2%), chronic glomerulonephritis (25.1%), hypertension (8.3%) and chronic interstitial nephritis (2.8%) are four major underlying renal diseases of ESRD. Older age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, regular use of herbal medicine, family members (both relatives and spouses), chronic lead exposure and hepatitis C are associated with higher risk for CKD. Impact of CKD increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases, especially in those with overt proteinuria and advanced CKD stages. These impacts lead to increased medical costs. The nationwide CKD Preventive Project with multidisciplinary care program has proved its effectiveness in decreasing dialysis incidence, mortality and medical costs. It is crucially significant from Taiwan experience on CKD survey and preliminary outcome of the preventive project. Provision of a more comprehensive public health strategy and better care plan for CKD should be achieved by future international collaborative efforts and research.