Mutations of the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene have been reported to be the most common cause of the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). A prospective brain MRI study was performed on 18 early-onset CMT patients with MFN2 mutations, and a high frequency (39%) of brain abnormalities was found. Early-onset patients showed multiple scattered or confluent brain lesions that involved gray matter as well as white matter. Patterns of brain involvement in early-onset patients differed from those of late-onset patients and other hereditary peripheral neuropathies. In addition, one CMT patient demonstrated a brain lesion before the development of peripheral neuropathy.