Pathbase, the database of mouse histopathology images, was developed as a resource to provide free access to representative images of lesions in background and mutant strains of laboratory mice. When utilized with diagnostic workups or phenotyping of mutant mice, it can provide a "virtual second opinion" for those working without access to groups of experienced pathologists. This is a community resource, and it facilitates the sharing of expertise and data among members of the pathology community worldwide. MPATH-the mouse pathology ontology-was developed alongside Pathbase for the annotation of images and now represents an important resource for the coding of diagnoses, permitting sophisticated data retrieval and computational analysis of mouse phenotypes. In this article, the structure and use of MPATH is discussed, along with current and future challenges for the coding of mutant mouse phenotypes.