Activation of the PI3 kinase pathway can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, defined as an increase in skeletal muscle mass. In mammals, skeletal muscle hypertrophy occurs as a result of an increase in the size, as opposed to the number, of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers. This pathway's effects on skeletal muscle have been implicated most prominently downstream of Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling. IGF-1's pro-hypertrophy activity comes predominantly through its ability to activate the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Akt is a serine-threonine protein kinase that can induce protein synthesis and block the transcriptional upregulation of key mediators of skeletal muscle atrophy, the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx (also called Atrogin-1), by phosphorylating and thereby inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the FOXO (also called "forkhead") family of transcription factors. Once phosphorylated by Akt, the FOXOs are excluded from the nucleus, and upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx is blocked. MuRF1 and MAFbx mediate atrophy by ubiquitinating particular protein substrates, causing them to undergo degradation by the proteasome. MuRF1's substrates include several components of the sarcomeric thick filament, including Myosin Heavy Chain (MyHC). Thus, by blocking MuRF1 activation, IGF-1 helps prevent the breakdown of the thick filament under atrophy conditions.IGF1/PI3K/Akt signaling also can dominantly inhibit the effects of a secreted protein called "myostatin," which is a member of the TGFβ family of proteins. Deletion or inhibition of myostatin causes an increase in skeletal muscle size, because myostatin acts both to inhibit myoblast differentiation and to block the Akt pathway. Thus by blocking myostatin, PI3K/Akt activation stimulates differentiation and protein synthesis by this distinct mechanism. Myostatin induces the phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factors of Smad2 and Smad3, downstream of the ActRII (Activin Receptor type II)/Alk (Activin Receptor-like kinase) receptor complex. Other TGFβ-like molecules can also block differentiation, including TGF-b1, GDF-11, activinA, BMP-2 and BMP-7. As mentioned, myostatin also downregulates the Akt/mTOR/p70S6 protein synthesis pathway, which mediates both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes. Blockade of the Akt/mTOR pathway, using siRNA to RAPTOR, a component of "TORC1" (TOR signaling Complex 1), increases myostatin-induced phosphorylation of Smad2; this establishes a "feed-forward mechanism," because myostatin can downregulates TORC1, and this downregulation in turn amplifies myostatin signaling. Blockade of RAPTOR also facilitates myostatin's inhibition of muscle differentiation. When added to post-differentiated myotubes, myostatin causes a decrease in their diameter - however, this does not happen through the normal "atrophy pathway." Rather than causing upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx, previously shown to mediate skeletal muscle atrophy, myostatin decreases expression of these atrophy markers in differentiated myotubes, as well as other genes normally upregulated during differentiation, such as MyoD and myogenin. These findings show that myostatin signaling acts by blocking genes induced during differentiation, even in a myotube, as opposed to activating the distinct "atrophy program."