Mineral water administration may increase kidney elimination of urea, creatinine and folic acid in a concentration-dependent fashion

Int J Artif Organs. 2010 May;33(5):317-20.


Background: In a previous experimental study we showed that the administration of a large water load in a short time increases the urinary flow and the transport capacity in the excretory tract of the rabbit ureter. In human subjects drinking a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 30 minutes, diuresis, creatinine and urea clearance increase more than in those drinking the same load in 24 hours.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible correlations between percent reduction and baseline values of serum urea, creatinine, folic acid, and magnesium in humans.

Methods and results: 20 volunteers were divided in two groups. Subjects in group 1 received a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 24 hours followed by the same load in 30 minutes. Subjects in group 2 received the same water load but in inverse order. Before and after each water administration, the following variables were measured and compared: diuresis, serum urea, creatinine, folic acid and magnesium concentration, and urea and creatinine clearance.

Results: Serum urea and folic acid concentration decreased up to 40% after administration of the water load in 24 hours. Serum creatinine concentration decreased up to 20% after administration of the water load in 30 minutes. The concentration drop of these metabolites increased with increasing baseline metabolite concentrations.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Creatinine / blood*
  • Diuresis
  • Drinking*
  • Folic Acid / blood*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Magnesium / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Mineral Waters / administration & dosage*
  • Models, Biological
  • Time Factors
  • Urea / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Mineral Waters
  • Urea
  • Folic Acid
  • Creatinine
  • Magnesium