Objectives: The goal of this review is to discuss the different non-invasive imaging techniques as well as the age-specific pediatric vascular pathologies and their imaging features.
Material and methods: Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging features of pediatric ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, aneurysms, cavernomas, developmental venous anomalies, and arteriovenous malformations are presented. In addition, multiple non-invasive angiographic techniques (CT and MR angiography) and functional MRI sequences (diffusion, perfusion, and susceptibility-weighted imaging) are discussed.
Conclusion: Neurovascular imaging plays a central role in the early, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pediatric intracranial vascular disorders. A detailed knowledge of the quality and exact angioarchitecture of pediatric vascular pathologies as well as their impact on the cerebral hemo-dynamics is essential to guide and monitor treatment options and to predict functional outcome.