The estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity and the genotoxicity/antigenotoxicity of bee pollen from Salix alba L. and Cystus incanus L. and its derivative extracts in yeast and human cells was investigated. All samples showed a marked inhibitory effect on the activity of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (higher than 90% for extracts 2) and failed to cause estrogenic activity and chromosome damage. At least one preparation from each species showed a marked antigenotoxic effect against the action of the anticancer drugs mytomicin C, bleomycin, and vincristine. Bee pollens from C. incanus and S. alba were found to be neither genotoxic nor estrogenic as well as effective estrogen inhibitors, and able to reduce the chromosome damage induced by the three cancer drugs used, thus supporting their use as a safe food supplement and future chemoprotective/chemopreventive agents.
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