Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a well-recognized complication of left-sided heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function that portends a worse prognosis. The identification of risk factors may provide insight into possible mechanisms for the development of PH in this population. Targeting these risk factors could possibly attenuate the development of PH. The limited data available regarding the prevalence of PH and its risk factors in patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are based on echocardiography. To further study this, an institutional database was searched for all patients who underwent right-sided and left-sided cardiac catheterization with ventriculography from October 1996 to September 2007 who met the following criteria: left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) >15 mm Hg, a left ventricular ejection fraction > or =50%, and no significant left-sided cardiac valvular disease. The demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic data of these patients were then analyzed. Of 455 patients who met these criteria, 239 (52.5%) had PH, defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg. Using multivariate logistic regression, PH was strongly and independently associated with LVEDP > or =25 mm Hg (odds ratio 4.3), morbid obesity (odds ratio 3.4), and atrial arrhythmias (odds ratio 3.1). Other significant associations were age > or =80 years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dyspnea on exertion. In conclusion, PH is a frequent finding in patients with elevated LVEDPs and preserved left ventricular systolic function. Factors associated with its development are LVEDP > or =25 mm Hg, morbid obesity, atrial arrhythmias, age > or =80 years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dyspnea on exertion.
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