Formulation and stability of a novel artificial human sweat under conditions of storage and use

Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Sep;24(6):1790-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.06.016. Epub 2010 Jul 3.


A limitation of most artificial sweat formulations used for in vitro assessment of chemical release from materials in contact with skin have little biological relevance to human sweat. The purposes of this paper are to provide guidance for preparation of a novel artificial sweat with chemical constituents at concentrations that match human sweat and to characterize chemical stability. The artificial sweat was characterized under conditions of use (with and without sebum at 36 degrees C) and storage (without sebum at -4, 4, and 23 degrees C) over 28 days by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, enzymatic assay kits, and ion-selective electrodes. Seven indicator constituents were tracked: sodium, chloride, glucose, lactic acid, urea, pantothenic acid, and alanine. With or without sebum at 36 degrees C, the sweat solvent was chemically stable for 14 days. Storage by refrigeration at 4 degrees C retained the chemical integrity of the solvent longest. Based on these results, the solvent should be used within 14 days of preparation. The artificial sweat model presented herein is most similar to human sweat and has applications as a dissolution solvent, donor solution in diffusion cells, or vehicle for patch testing. This sweat model may aid researchers in understanding potential release and percutaneous absorption of chemicals in contact with human skin surface liquids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Dehydroascorbic Acid / chemistry
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Manufactured Materials*
  • Sebum / chemistry
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Solubility
  • Sweat / chemistry*
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors


  • Dehydroascorbic Acid