Strategies to increase the delivery of smoking cessation treatments in primary care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prev Med. 2010 Sep-Oct;51(3-4):199-213. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.06.007. Epub 2010 Jun 17.


Objectives: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate evidence-based strategies for increasing the delivery of smoking cessation treatments in primary care clinics.

Methods: The review included studies published before January 1, 2009. The pooled odds-ratio (OR) was calculated for intervention group versus control group for practitioner performance for "5As" (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange) delivery and smoking abstinence. Multi-component interventions were defined as interventions which combined two or more intervention strategies.

Results: Thirty-seven trials met eligibility criteria. Evidence from multiple large-scale trials was found to support the efficacy of multi-component interventions in increasing "5As" delivery. The pooled OR for multi-component interventions compared to control was 1.79 [95% CI 1.6-2.1] for "ask", 1.6 [95% CI 1.4-1.8] for "advice", 9.3 [95% CI 6.8-12.8] for "assist" (quit date) and 3.5 [95% CI 2.8-4.2] for "assist" (prescribe medications). Evidence was also found to support the value of practice-level interventions in increasing 5As delivery. Adjunct counseling [OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5-2.0] and multi-component interventions [OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.7-2.8] were found to significantly increase smoking abstinence.

Conclusion: Multi-component interventions improve smoking outcomes in primary care settings. Future trials should attempt to isolate which components of multi-component interventions are required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Confidence Intervals
  • Humans
  • Odds Ratio
  • Primary Health Care* / methods
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Smoking Cessation* / methods