Off-target hits of drugs can lead to serious adverse effects or, conversely, to unforeseen alternative medical utility. Selectivity profiling against large panels of potential targets is essential for the drug discovery process to minimize attrition and maximize therapeutic utility. Lately, it has become apparent that drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) goes well beyond target families; therefore, lowering the profiling costs and expanding the coverage of targets is an industry-wide challenge to improve predictions. Here, we review current and promising drug profiling alternatives and commercial solutions in these exciting emerging fields.
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