Evaluation of the application of computer-aided shape-adapted fabricated titanium mesh for mirroring-reconstructing orbital walls in cases of late post-traumatic enophthalmos

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Sep;68(9):2070-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2009.08.029.


Purpose: Computer-aided individually shape-adapted fabricated titanium mesh for the mirroring-reconstruction of the orbit is a promising method for the correction of post-traumatic enophthalmos. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of this technique and assess the treatment outcomes.

Patients and methods: Twenty-one patients with delayed treatment of unilateral impure orbital fracture and post-traumatic enophthalmos were included in this study. Computed tomography-based mirroring-reconstruction images of the orbit were obtained for each individual to fabricate anatomically adaptive titanium mesh by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing techniques. After exposing the areas of orbital defect and reducing the herniated soft tissue, the titanium mesh was inserted to reconstruct the internal orbit with a mean deep extension of 29.33 mm. Measurements were performed to assess the change in the degree of enophthalmos and orbital volume before and after surgery. Paired samples t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were employed for statistical analysis.

Results: Follow-up examinations revealed that the degree of enophthalmos decreased to less than 2 mm in 11 patients, 2 to 4 mm in 9 patients, and remained greater than 7 mm in 1 patient. Statistical analysis revealed that post-traumatic enophthalmos in this series was 4.05 +/- 2.02 mm, which was associated with an orbital volume increment of 6.61 +/- 3.63 cm(3), with a regression formula of enophthalmos = 0.446 x orbital volume increment + 2.406. Orbital reconstruction effected a orbital volume decrease of 4.24 +/- 2.41 cm(3) and enophthalmos correction of 2.01 +/- 1.46 mm, the regression formula being enophthalmos = 0.586 x orbital volume decrease + 0.508. After surgery, the degree of unresolved enophthalmos was 2.03 +/- 1.52 mm, and the retained orbital volume expansion was 2.23 +/- 2.86 cm(3), and the regression formula was enophthalmos = 0.494 x orbital volume expansion + 1.415.

Conclusion: Application of the individual fabricated titanium mesh for orbital reconstruction reduced the trauma-induced orbital volume increment by 65% and corrected 50% of severe late enophthalmos. Additional augmentation of orbital contents was required for further correction. The related treatment parameters were suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Enophthalmos / etiology
  • Enophthalmos / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Orbital Fractures / complications
  • Orbital Fractures / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbital Fractures / surgery*
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*
  • Surgical Mesh*
  • Time Factors
  • Titanium
  • Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • Young Adult


  • Titanium