There are, in theory, several ways in which proteins may pass through the Golgi apparatus. Among these, the cisternal progression-maturation mode has gained broad consensus. However, there remain questions regarding the molecular mechanisms by which resident proteins are sorted from cargo and move backward to the proximal cisterna in synchrony with cisternal progression. In this short review, we discuss current questions about the organisation of trafficking to, through, and out of the Golgi apparatus, as well as the main approaches being developed to address such questions in model organisms including yeast, mammals and plants.
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