Allopolyploidy plays an important role in plant evolution and confers obvious advantages on crop growth and breeding compared to low ploidy levels. The present investigation was aimed at synthesising the first known chromosomally stable hexaploid Brassica with the genome constitution AABBCC. More than 2,000 putative hexaploid plants were obtained through large-scale hybridisation from various combinations of crosses between different cultivars of Brassica carinata (BBCC) and B. rapa (AA). The majority of plants after two generations of selfing within selected hexaploid plants (H(2)) were aneuploid, and only 80 plants (4.6%) had the expected hexaploid chromosome number (2n = 54). The hexaploid ratio increased to an average of 23.0 and 26.3% in the H(3) and H(4) generations, respectively, and was accompanied by an increase in pollen fertility. The appearance of aneuploid plants in each generation could be detected having various chromosomal abnormalities at meiosis. The frequency of hexaploid plants varied significantly among different cultivar combinations, from 0 to 56% in the H(4) generation, and it showed a positive correlation with pollen fertility. The frequency of SSR allelic fragments lost or novel alleles gained was significantly lower in H(4) than in H(2) and H(3), which reflects increasing genome stability in H(4). The A and C genomes were significantly less stable than the B genome, which may mainly result from frequent homoeologous pairing and rearrangements between the A and C genomes. Methods to establish a stable hexaploid Brassica crop by intercrossing these lines followed by intensive selection are also discussed.