The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis

Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Oct;31(7):528-34. doi: 10.1002/bem.20589.


We examined the histological changes by radiofrequency (RF) fields on rat testis, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to 848.5 MHz RF for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule consisted of two 45-min RF exposure periods, separated by a 15-min interval. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF was 2.0 W/kg. We then investigated correlates of testicular function such as sperm counts in the cauda epididymis, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, germ cell counts, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also performed p53, bcl-2, caspase 3, p21, and PARP immunoblotting of the testes in sham- and RF-exposed animals. Based on these results, we concluded that subchronic exposure to 848.5 MHz with 2.0 W/kg SAR RF did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / radiation effects
  • Body Temperature / radiation effects
  • Body Weight / radiation effects
  • Cell Phone*
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects
  • Epididymis / cytology
  • Epididymis / metabolism
  • Epididymis / radiation effects
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Organ Size / radiation effects
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sperm Count
  • Spermatogenesis / radiation effects
  • Spermatozoa / cytology
  • Spermatozoa / metabolism
  • Spermatozoa / radiation effects
  • Testis / cytology*
  • Testis / metabolism
  • Testis / physiology
  • Testis / radiation effects*


  • Malondialdehyde